Instructions for Authors

International Relations uses in-text author-date system for references. All manuscripts submitted to the journal should strictly follow the guidelines below. Please refer to the guidelines below for full details and examples.

The change of reference system will not affect the journal's article word limit, which will remain as 8000 words, including the abstract, key words and references.

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1. The manuscripts should be written with Times News Roman font and 1,5 space in one of the Word programs. 12 punto for the main text and 10 punto for the footnotes should be used.

2. Maximum two-level subtitle system should be used in the manuscripts. The first subtitle should be bold, the second should be bold and italic. The subtitles should not be numbered.

3. The quotations within the text should be given in double quotation marks; the quotations longer than 4 lines should be placed in a new paragraph with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin and should have one-spacing. The quotation should be given within a single quotation mark. 

4. Words used from different languages other than the manuscripts’ language should be written in italic and translation to Turkish or English as appropriate should be given in parentheses at its first use. Concepts and terminology that Turkish versions are not very well known or used differently by different scholars, should include it’s original language versions within parentheses. The words that need to be highlighted within the quotations should be written in italic and should be stated in a footnote that the emphasis belongs to the author.

5. The words that need to be highlighted within the text should not be written in italicbold, or underlined, but should be written within a single quotation mark. 

6. The sources used while preparing the article should be cited according to the Reference Guidelines provided below.

Reference Guidelines 

International Relations / Uluslararası İlişkiler prefers using the in-text author-date system for manuscripts submitted to the journal. Prospective authors should refer to the following examples when preparing their manuscripts. For cases not covered below, please check

In Text Citation

  • Sources are to be cited in the text in parentheses, with the author's last name, the date of publication of the work cited, and a page number if a specific page(s) is cited. There is no need for punctuation between the author and the date.

(Aydın 1999: 150-153)

(Aydın and Yazgan 2013: 24)

(BBC News Türkçe 2023)

  • For works by two or three authors, all names should be included. If there are more than three authors, only the last name of the first author is used, followed by ‘et al.’

(Buzan, Wæver and de Wilde 1998)

(Brummer et al. 2022: 1040)

  • If the last name of the author appears in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the parenthetical citation.

Its theory and method were developed further by Alexander George (1969) and Stephen Walker (1983).

  • Two or more references in a single parenthetical citation are separated by semicolons and are given in chronological order.

(George 1969; Walker 1983; Brummer et al. 2022)

  • If a reference list contains two or more works published in the same year by the same author(s), the letters a, b, etc., must be used in both the text and the reference list.

(Mac Ginty 2022a: 45)

(Mac Ginty 2022b)

  • Authors can use footnotes to provide additional or supplementary information about a passage in the text. However, the number of footnotes in the manuscript should be limited to minimum.


Full bibliographical information, arranged alphabetically, should be given in the references section (list of sources used) at the end of the text.

  • The full names of the authors should be used in the references. The surname first and then the first name separated with coma.

Wæver, Ole.

  • When there is more than one author, please do not use ‘&’ but ‘and’ to link them.

Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver, and Jaap De Wilde.

  • Successive entries by the same author(s) are arranged chronologically by year of publication.

Wæver, Ole. 1995. Securitization and Desecuritization. In On Security, ed. Ronnie D. Lipschutz. New York, Columbia University Press: 44–86.

Wæver, Ole. 2000. The EU as a Security Actor: Reflections from a Pessimistic Constructivist on Post-sovereign Security Orders. In International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration: Power, Security and Community, ed. Morten Kelstrup and Michael Williams. New York and London, Routledge: 250–294.

  • If there is more than one author, only the name of the first author will be inverted. A comma must be placed before and after the surname of the first author.

Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver, and Jaap De Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, Lynne Rienner.

  • Two or more works by the same author(s) published in the same year are distinguished by a, b, c, etc. after the date. These entries are listed alphabetically by title.

Mac Ginty, Roger. 2014a. Everyday Peace: Bottom-up and Local Agency in Conflict-affected Societies. Security Dialogue 45, 6: 548–564.

Mac Ginty, Roger. 2014b. Transitions and Hybrid Political Orders. In At the End of Military Intervention: Historical, Theoretical and Applied Approaches to Transition, Handover and Withdrawal, ed. Robert Johnson and Timothy Clark, 253–270. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Below you can find the most common uses of the Author-Date reference style:

If an English translation is added to the title of a foreign-language article, it should be in brackets, without quotation marks.


Aydın, Mustafa, and Çağrı Erhan. 2004. Turkish-American Relations: Past, Present and Future. New York and London, Routledge.

Özerdem, Alpaslan, Sinem Akgül Açıkmeşe, and Ian Liebenber. 2021. Routledge Handbook of Conflict Response and Leadership in Africa. New York and London, Routledge. 

Chapters in an edited book

Durmuş, Tuğcanlar, and Şevket Ovalı. 2019. Greece’s Portrayal by the Turkish Print Media: A Comparative Study on Conjunctural Images. In Greece and Turkey in Conflict and Cooperation: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization, ed. Alexis Heraclides and Gizem Alioğlu Çakmak. London, Routledge: 210–223.

Journal Articles

Baysal, Başar. 2020. 20 Years of Securitization: Strengths, Limitations and A New Dual Framework. Uluslararası İlişkiler 17, 67: 3–20.

Benli Altunışık, and Lenore G. Martin. 2023. Turkey and the Middle East and North Africa under the AKP: A Three Level Analysis of Foreign Policy Change. Uluslararası İlişkiler 20, 78: 79–96.

Conference papers and proceedings

Please note that conference proceedings can be treated as chapters in edited books.

Alemdar, Zeynep, Birgül Demirtaş and Burcu Özdemir Sarıgil. 2022. Türkiye’de Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliği. Paper presented at the IX. Uluslararası İlişkiler Çalışmaları ve Eğitimi Kongresi, May 26-29, Mersin, Turkey. 

Dissertation or theses

The word 'unpublished' is not required when giving details of the reference.

Canbolat, Sercan. 2014. Understanding the New Middle Eastern Leaders: An Operational Code Approach. MA thesis, Bilkent University.

Newspaper or magazine articles

Göğüş, Hasan. 2023. Dışişleri'nin 500. Yılına En Büyük Hediye. T24, April 29.

BBC News Türkçe. 2023. NATO Genel Sekreteri Stoltenberg: İsveç ve Türkiye Brüksel’de Üst Düzey Toplantı Yapacak. May 26.

Yetkin, Murat. 2023. ABD ve AB Erdoğan’a İsveç’e Derhal NATO Üyeliği Baskısı Yapıyor. Yetkin Report, June 9. June 27, 2023).

Triantaphyllou, Dimitrios. 2023. The Ongoing Greek Electoral Cycle. UIK Panorama, June 16. June 25, 2023).

Electronic Sources

The first letter of the protocol (h in http) should not be capitalized. The capitalization of the remaining components varies, as some URLs are case sensitive, they should not be edited for style. Adding angle brackets (i.e., < >) at either end of the address should be avoided unless it is part of the address.

If there is no author for electronic resources, the owner of the site may stand in for the author. Descriptive phrases can be used for content on very informal sites where titles may be missing.

Global Academy. Public Perceptions on Turkish Foreign Policy. (accessed June 25, 2023).

Non-English sources

If an English translation of a title is required, it should follow the original title in brackets, without italics or quotation marks.

Bilgin, Pınar. 2021. How not to Globalise IR: ‘Centre’ and ‘Periphery’ as Constitutive of ‘the International’ [Uluslararası İlişkiler Nasıl Küreselleştirilmez: ‘Uluslararası’nın Kurucusu Olarak ‘Merkez’ ve ‘Çevre’]. Uluslararası İlişkiler 18, 70: 13–27.

No author

If a source does not have an author, 'Anonymous' is used in place of the author's name in a reference list. However, the use of ‘Anonymous’ should generally be avoided.

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